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Glossary of Terms

Ancillary Services:
Services that are necessary to support the transmission of capacity and energy from generation to loads while maintaining reliable operation of transmission provider's system.
Base Generation Supply:
Provided by units, usually nuclear, coal or Orimulsion«, which have high capital costs but relatively low fuel and operating costs. It is usually more economical to operate these units when they are available. During the spring, high water flows allow hydro facilities to operate as base generation. Base load units generally operate more than 60% of the time.
Capacity:
In the electric power industry, this word has two meanings:
  1. Power: that is, the rate of delivery of energy. For example, a utility might sell 50 MW of capacity, i.e. power.
  2. The maximum quantity of power that some piece of equipment is capable of carrying. For example, a generating unit might have a rated capacity of 50 MW.
Co-generation:
Co-generation is the concurrent generation of useful heat (usually steam) and electricity. The useful heat is generally used by industry in the manufacturing process and for space heating.
Combustion Turbine:
A combustion turbine is a generator that produces electricity by passing the exhaust gases of burning fuel directly through turbine blades.
Control Centre:
The control room from which instructions are issued for switching power system equipment, stations or lines, and for changing the amount of power stations.
Customer:
An individual, partnership, organization, corporation, institution, or business that is receiving or has received electrical energy or services from NB Power.
Debt Ratio:
Debt over debt plus equity, where debt equals long-term debt plus short-term indebtedness less cash and short-term investments plus irradiated fuel management, nuclear unit decommissioning and fuel channel removal plus unfunded pension obligation.
Demand:
The rate at which electricity is delivered at a given moment or average over the designated period of time. Demand from each customer and each customer class is accumulated to form the system demands at any point in time. It is crucial for utilities to plan and operate facilities so that demands are met and service interruptions avoided. Demand is commonly measured in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW).
Demand-Side Management:
Any attempt by the utility to change or influence the demand placed on the system by customers.
Distribution:
The act or process of distributing electric energy from convenient points on the transmission system to the customer. Also a functional classification relating to the portion of equipment or system or facilities used for the purpose of delivering electric energy from convenient points on the transmission system to the consumer, or to expenses relating to the operation and maintenance of the distribution system.
Distribution System:
All interests in land, structures, lines, transformers, and other facilities employed between the transmission system and the customer.
Economy Sale:
Energy sold by one power system to another to effect a saving in the cost of generation when the receiving party has adequate capability to supply the loads on its own system.
Embedded Cost Rates:
Distributing a utility's total annual costs among rate classes based on average costs.
Energy:
The amount of electricity supplied over a specified time period. Energy is commonly measured in kilowatt hours (kWh), megawatt hours (MWh), or gigawatt hours (GWh).
Firm Sale:
Electrical power intended to be available at all times during the period of the agreement for its sale.
Forced Outage Rate:
The probability that a particular generating unit or other system component will be unavailable for service due to breakdown.
Generation:
The process that transforms thermal, mechanical or nuclear energy into electricity.
Incentive Rate:
A reduction in demand charges of large industrial customers with new or additional loads of 2000 kW or greater. The incentive rate is effective until September 30, 2001.
Independent System Operator (ISO):
An agency with no ownership interest in generation or transmission but with responsibility for the reliable operation of the integrated bulk power system.
Interchange:
Kilowatt hours delivered to or received by one electric utility system from another. They may be returned in kind at a later time or may be accumulated as energy balances until the end of a stated period. Settlement may be by payment or on a pooling basis.
Interconnected System:
A system consisting of two or more individual power systems connected together by transmission lines.
Interest Ratio:
(Net income plus interest expense less income from sinking funds and other investments) over (interest expense less income from sinking funds and other investments).
Intermediate Generation Supply:
Provided by units which typically have lower capital costs (60% of base load units). Fuel and operating costs, however, are higher than for base load units. Most often these units are oil-fired and are susceptible to price fluctuations. Intermediate units generally operate between 20-60% of the time.
Load:
Electrical power or energy consumed by a particular customer or group of customers.
Open Access:
Open transmission access refers to the requirement by electric utilities that own or operate electric transmission facilities to offer transmission service to any eligible entities, at the same prices and terms the owner charges to itself. The objective of open access is to facilitate the development of a competitive market by ensuring that wholesale buyers and sellers reach each other and to eliminate anticompetitive and discriminatory practices in transmission services.
Orimulsion«:
Is a trademark for a water emulsion fuel made from bitumen found in the Orinoco region of Venezuela.
Outage:
The state of a circuit component when it is unavailable to perform its intended function due to some event associated with that component. An outage may or may not cause an interruption of service to consumers, depending on the layout of the system.
Natural Gas Combined-Cycle (NGCC):
A form of electrical generation whereby hot exhaust gases from the combustion turbine are passed through a heat recovery steam generator where they are cooled. The steam drives a separate generator. Usually about two-thirds of the power comes from the combustion turbine and one-third comes from the steam turbine generator.
Non-Utility Generation (NUG):
Non-utility generation in New Brunswick is electrical generation produced by industrial enterprises or other entrepreneurs, either for sale or for their own use.
Participation Contract:
A type of firm contract supplied only when a specified generation source is in operation.
Peaking Generation Supply:
Provided by units, usually combustion turbines, which have the least expensive capital costs (30% of base load units) but use expensive high quality fuels. As a result, peaking units are only economical if operated for short periods of time. Peaking generation is also available from hydro facilities. However, these facilities are generally dependent on river flows. Peaking units provide needed reserve in order to maintain an acceptable level of system reliability.
Power System:
All the interconnected facilities of an electrical utility. A power system includes the generating stations, transformers, switching stations, transmission lines, substations, distribution lines, and circuits to the customers’ premises. In short, a system consists of all the facilities required to provide electrical service to the customers.
Production:
The act or process of generating electric energy. Also a functional classification relating to the portion of utility equipment used for the purpose of generating electric energy, or to expenses relating to the operating or maintenance of production facilities, or the purchase and interchange of electric energy.
Rate Universality:
Providing the same rates to all customers within a specific rate class.
Reserve Generating Capability:
The extra generating capacity required on any power system over and above the expected peak load. Reserve is required in case of unexpected breakdown of generating equipment or in case the actual peak load is higher than forecast.
Retail Access:
Non-discriminatory access to the transmission and/or distribution systems which would enable industrial, general service, and residential customers to choose their power supplier. This supplier could be the local host utility, a power marketer, an independent power producer, or some distant utility.
Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR):
A process designed for nuclear power stations which allows spacer springs in fuel bundles to be located and moved back into their design location.
Stranded Costs:
Costs incurred by a utility as a result of investments made in the past to meet its obligation to serve all customers, which are made uneconomical because of the introduction of competition.
Substation/Terminal:
An assemblage of equipment for the purpose of switching and/or changing or regulating the voltage of electricity. Service equipment, line transformer installations, or minor distribution or transmission equipment are not classified as substations or terminals.
Transfer Pricing:
A system of internal charges established for the exchange of goods and services between business units within the same company. These charges would allow the functional units within a corporation to have their own financial accounting statements since one unit sells its products and services to the others.
Transmission:
The act or process of transporting electric energy in bulk from a source of supply to other principal parts of the system or to other utility systems. Also a functional classification relating to the portion of utility facilities used for the purpose of transmitting electric energy in bulk to other principal parts of the system or to other utility systems, or to expenses relating to the operation and maintenance of transmission facilities.
Vertical Integrated Utility:
A utility with generation, transmission and distribution resources.
Voltage:
The electrical force or potential that causes a current to flow in a circuit. Voltage is measured in volts or kilovolts (kV). 1kV = 1000volts.
Watt:
The electrical unit of power or rate of doing work. The rate of energy transfer equivalent to one ampere flowing under a pressure of one volt at unity power factor. It is analogous to horsepower or foot-pounds per minute of mechanical power. One horsepower is equivalent to approximately 746 watts.
Wheeling:
The delivery of power within, out of, into or through a host utility’s transmission system for parties other than the host utility. These parties could be customers, marketers, independent power producers, and/or external utilities.
Wholesale Access:
Non-discriminatory access to the bulk transmission system which would enable wholesale distribution utilities to choose suppliers from whom they would purchase power for resale to their retail customers.


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