Glossary of Terms
- Ancillary Services:
- Services that are necessary to support the
transmission of capacity and energy from
generation to loads while maintaining reliable
operation of transmission provider's system.
- Base Generation Supply:
- Provided by units, usually nuclear, coal or
Orimulsion«, which have high capital costs but
relatively low fuel and operating costs. It is
usually more economical to operate these units
when they are available. During the spring, high
water flows allow hydro facilities to operate as
base generation. Base load units generally
operate more than 60% of the time.
- In the electric power industry, this word has two
- Power: that is, the rate of delivery of
energy. For example, a utility might sell
50 MW of capacity, i.e. power.
- The maximum quantity of power that some
piece of equipment is capable of
carrying. For example, a generating unit
might have a rated capacity of 50 MW.
- Co-generation is the concurrent generation of
useful heat (usually steam) and electricity. The
useful heat is generally used by industry in the
manufacturing process and for space heating.
- Combustion Turbine:
- A combustion turbine is a generator that produces
electricity by passing the exhaust gases of
burning fuel directly through turbine blades.
- Control Centre:
- The control room from which instructions are
issued for switching power system equipment,
stations or lines, and for changing the amount of
- An individual, partnership, organization,
corporation, institution, or business that is
receiving or has received electrical energy or
services from NB Power.
- Debt Ratio:
- Debt over debt plus equity, where debt equals
long-term debt plus short-term indebtedness less
cash and short-term investments plus irradiated
fuel management, nuclear unit decommissioning and
fuel channel removal plus unfunded pension
- The rate at which electricity is delivered at a
given moment or average over the designated
period of time. Demand from each customer and
each customer class is accumulated to form the
system demands at any point in time. It is
crucial for utilities to plan and operate
facilities so that demands are met and service
interruptions avoided. Demand is commonly
measured in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW).
- Demand-Side Management:
- Any attempt by the utility to change or influence
the demand placed on the system by customers.
- The act or process of distributing electric
energy from convenient points on the transmission
system to the customer. Also a functional
classification relating to the portion of
equipment or system or facilities used for the
purpose of delivering electric energy from
convenient points on the transmission system to
the consumer, or to expenses relating to the
operation and maintenance of the distribution
- Distribution System:
- All interests in land, structures, lines,
transformers, and other facilities employed
between the transmission system and the customer.
- Economy Sale:
- Energy sold by one power system to another to
effect a saving in the cost of generation when
the receiving party has adequate capability to
supply the loads on its own system.
- Embedded Cost Rates:
- Distributing a utility's total annual costs among
rate classes based on average costs.
- The amount of electricity supplied over a
specified time period. Energy is commonly
measured in kilowatt hours (kWh), megawatt hours
(MWh), or gigawatt hours (GWh).
- Firm Sale:
- Electrical power intended to be available at all
times during the period of the agreement for its
- Forced Outage Rate:
- The probability that a particular generating unit
or other system component will be unavailable for
service due to breakdown.
- The process that transforms thermal, mechanical
or nuclear energy into electricity.
- Incentive Rate:
- A reduction in demand charges of large industrial
customers with new or additional loads of 2000 kW
or greater. The incentive rate is effective until
September 30, 2001.
- Independent System Operator (ISO):
- An agency with no ownership interest in
generation or transmission but with
responsibility for the reliable operation of the
integrated bulk power system.
- Kilowatt hours delivered to or received by one
electric utility system from another. They may be
returned in kind at a later time or may be
accumulated as energy balances until the end of a
stated period. Settlement may be by payment or on
a pooling basis.
- Interconnected System:
- A system consisting of two or more individual
power systems connected together by transmission
- Interest Ratio:
- (Net income plus interest expense less income
from sinking funds and other investments) over
(interest expense less income from sinking funds
and other investments).
- Intermediate Generation Supply:
- Provided by units which typically have lower
capital costs (60% of base load units). Fuel and
operating costs, however, are higher than for
base load units. Most often these units are
oil-fired and are susceptible to price
fluctuations. Intermediate units generally
operate between 20-60% of the time.
- Electrical power or energy consumed by a
particular customer or group of customers.
- Open Access:
- Open transmission access refers to the
requirement by electric utilities that own or
operate electric transmission facilities to offer
transmission service to any eligible entities, at
the same prices and terms the owner charges to
itself. The objective of open access is to
facilitate the development of a competitive
market by ensuring that wholesale buyers and
sellers reach each other and to eliminate
anticompetitive and discriminatory practices in
- Is a trademark for a water emulsion fuel made
from bitumen found in the Orinoco region of
- The state of a circuit component when it is
unavailable to perform its intended function due
to some event associated with that component. An
outage may or may not cause an interruption of
service to consumers, depending on the layout of
- Natural Gas Combined-Cycle (NGCC):
- A form of electrical generation whereby hot
exhaust gases from the combustion turbine are
passed through a heat recovery steam generator
where they are cooled. The steam drives a
separate generator. Usually about two-thirds of
the power comes from the combustion turbine and
one-third comes from the steam turbine generator.
- Non-Utility Generation (NUG):
- Non-utility generation in New Brunswick is
electrical generation produced by industrial
enterprises or other entrepreneurs, either for
sale or for their own use.
- Participation Contract:
- A type of firm contract supplied only when a
specified generation source is in operation.
- Peaking Generation Supply:
- Provided by units, usually combustion turbines,
which have the least expensive capital costs (30%
of base load units) but use expensive high
quality fuels. As a result, peaking units are
only economical if operated for short periods of
time. Peaking generation is also available from
hydro facilities. However, these facilities are
generally dependent on river flows. Peaking units
provide needed reserve in order to maintain an
acceptable level of system reliability.
- Power System:
- All the interconnected facilities of an
electrical utility. A power system includes the
generating stations, transformers, switching
stations, transmission lines, substations,
distribution lines, and circuits to the
customers premises. In short, a system
consists of all the facilities required to
provide electrical service to the customers.
- The act or process of generating electric energy.
Also a functional classification relating to the
portion of utility equipment used for the purpose
of generating electric energy, or to expenses
relating to the operating or maintenance of
production facilities, or the purchase and
interchange of electric energy.
- Rate Universality:
- Providing the same rates to all customers within
a specific rate class.
- Reserve Generating Capability:
- The extra generating capacity required on any
power system over and above the expected peak
load. Reserve is required in case of unexpected
breakdown of generating equipment or in case the
actual peak load is higher than forecast.
- Retail Access:
- Non-discriminatory access to the transmission
and/or distribution systems which would enable
industrial, general service, and residential
customers to choose their power supplier. This
supplier could be the local host utility, a power
marketer, an independent power producer, or some
- Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR):
- A process designed for nuclear power stations
which allows spacer springs in fuel bundles to be
located and moved back into their design
- Stranded Costs:
- Costs incurred by a utility as a result of
investments made in the past to meet its
obligation to serve all customers, which are made
uneconomical because of the introduction of
- An assemblage of equipment for the purpose of
switching and/or changing or regulating the
voltage of electricity. Service equipment, line
transformer installations, or minor distribution
or transmission equipment are not classified as
substations or terminals.
- Transfer Pricing:
- A system of internal charges established for the
exchange of goods and services between business
units within the same company. These charges
would allow the functional units within a
corporation to have their own financial
accounting statements since one unit sells its
products and services to the others.
- The act or process of transporting electric
energy in bulk from a source of supply to other
principal parts of the system or to other utility
systems. Also a functional classification
relating to the portion of utility facilities
used for the purpose of transmitting electric
energy in bulk to other principal parts of the
system or to other utility systems, or to
expenses relating to the operation and
maintenance of transmission facilities.
- Vertical Integrated Utility:
- A utility with generation, transmission and
- The electrical force or potential that causes a
current to flow in a circuit. Voltage is measured
in volts or kilovolts (kV). 1kV = 1000volts.
- The electrical unit of power or rate of doing
work. The rate of energy transfer equivalent to
one ampere flowing under a pressure of one volt
at unity power factor. It is analogous to
horsepower or foot-pounds per minute of
mechanical power. One horsepower is equivalent to
approximately 746 watts.
- The delivery of power within, out of, into or
through a host utilitys transmission system
for parties other than the host utility. These
parties could be customers, marketers,
independent power producers, and/or external
- Wholesale Access:
- Non-discriminatory access to the bulk
transmission system which would enable wholesale
distribution utilities to choose suppliers from
whom they would purchase power for resale to
their retail customers.