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Glossary of Terms

Base Generation Supply
Provided by units, usually nuclear, coal or Orimulsion® which have high capital costs but relatively low fuel and operating costs. It is usually more economical to operate these units whenever they are available. During the spring months, high water flows allow hydro facilities to operate as base generation. Base load units generally operate more than 60% of the time.
Capacity
In the electric power industry, this word has two meanings:
  1. Power; that is, the rate of delivery of energy. For example, a utility might sell 50 MW of capacity, i.e., of power.
  2. The maximum quantity of power that some piece of equipment is capable of carrying. For example, a generating unit might have a rated capacity of 50 MW.
Co-generation
Co-generation is the concurrent generation of useful heat (usually steam) and electricity. The useful heat is generally used by industry in the manufacturing process and for space heating.
Combustion Turbine
A combustion turbine is a generator that produces electricity by passing the exhaust gases of burning fuel directly through turbine blades.
Control Centre
The control room from which instructions are issued for switching power system equipment, stations or lines, and for changing the amount of power generated in power stations.
Customer
An individual, partnership, organization, corporation, institution, or business that is receiving or has received electrical energy or electrical services in New Brunswick from NB Power.
Demand
The rate at which electricity is delivered at a given instant or average over the designated period of time. Demands of each customer and each customer class are accumulated to form the system demands at any point in time. It is crucial for utilities to plan and operate facilities such that demands are met and service interruptions are avoided. Demand is commonly measured in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW).
Demand-Side Management
Any attempt by the utility to change or influence the demand placed upon the system by customers.
Distribution
The act or process of distributing electric energy from convenient points on the transmission system to the customers. Also a functional classification relating to that portion of equipment or system or facilities used for the purpose of delivering electric energy from convenient points on the transmission system to the consumers, or to expenses relating to the operation and maintenance of distribution system.
Distribution System
All interests in land, structures, lines, transformers, and other facilities employed between the transmission system and the Customer.
Economy Sale
Energy sold by one power system to another to effect a saving in the cost of generation when the receiving party has adequate capability to supply the loads on its own system.
Embedded Cost Rates
Distributing a utilities total annual costs among rate classes based on average costs.
Energy
Is the amount of electricity supplied over a specified time period. Energy is commonly measured in kilowatt hours (kWh), megawatt hours (MWh), or gigawatt hours (GWh).
Firm Sale
Electric power intended to be available at all times during the period of the agreement for its sale.
Forced Outage Rate
The probability that a particular generating unit or other system component will be unavailable for service because of breakdown.
Generation
Is the process which transforms thermal, mechanical or nuclear energy into electricity.
Incentive Rate
A reduction in demand charges of large industrial customers with new or additional loads of 2000 kW or greater. The incentive rate is effective until September 30, 2001.
Interchange
Kilowatt hours delivered to or received by one electric utility system from another. They may be returned in kind at a later time or may be accumulated as energy balances until the end of a stated period. Settlement may be by payment or on a pooling basis.
Interconnected System
A system consisting of two or more individual power systems connected together by transmission lines.
Load
Electric power or energy consumed by a particular customer or group of customers.
Orimulsion®
Is a trademark name for a water emulsion fuel made from bitumen found in the Orinoco region of Venezuela
Outage
The state of a circuit component when it is not available to perform its intended function because of some event associated with that component. An outage may or may not cause an interruption of service to consumers, depending on the layout of the system.
Natural Gas Combined-Cycle (NGCC)
A form of electrical generation whereby hot exhaust gases from the combustion turbine are passed through a heat recovery steam generator where they are cooled. The steam drives a separate generator. Usually about two-thirds of the power comes from the combustion turbine and one-third comes from the steam turbine generator.
Non-Utility Generation (NUG)
Non-utility generation in New Brunswick is electrical generation produced by industrial enterprises or other entrepreneurs, either for sale to NB Power or for their own use. Producers may realize greater efficiencies by generating their own power, rather than purchasing it from the NB Power system.
Participation Contract
A type of firm contract only supplied when a specified generation source is in operation.
Peaking Generation Supply
Provided by units, usually combustion turbines, which have the least expensive capital costs (30% of base load units) but use expensive high quality fuels. As a result, peaking units are only economical if operated for short periods of time. Peaking generation is also available from hydro facilities, however, these facilities are generally dependent on river flows. Peaking units provide needed reserve in order to maintain an acceptable level of reliability on the system.
Power System
All the interconnected facilities of an electrical utility. A power system includes the generating stations, transformers, switching stations, transmission lines, substations, distribution lines, and circuits to the customers' premises. In short, a system consists of all the facilities required to provide electrical service to the customers.
Production
The act or process of generating electric energy. Also a functional classification relating to that portion of utility equipment used for the purpose of generating electric energy, or to expenses relating to the operating or maintenance of production facilities, or the purchase and interchange of electric energy.
Rate Universality
Providing the same rates for all customers within a specific rate class.
Reserve Generating Capability
The extra generating capacity required on any power system over and above the expected peak load. Such a reserve is required mainly for two reasons: First, in case of unexpected breakdown of generating equipment; second, in case the actual peak load is higher than forecast.
Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR)
A process designed for nuclear power stations which will allow spacer springs in fuel bundles to be located and moved back into their design location.
Substation/Terminal
An assemblage of equipment for the purpose of switching and/or changing or regulating the voltage of electricity. Service equipment, line transformer installations, or minor distribution or transmission equipment are not classified as substations or terminals.
Sulphur Dioxide
A heavy, odourless gas with the chemical formula SO2. It occurs in the flue gasses emitted from furnaces where fuel containing sulphur is burned.
Transmission
The act or process of transporting electric energy in bulk from a source of supply to other principal parts of the system or to other utility systems. Also a functional classification relating to that portion of utility facilities used for the purpose of transmitting electric energy in bulk to other principal parts of the system or to other utility systems, or to expenses relating to the operation and maintenance of transmission facilities.
Verticle Integrated Utility
A utility with generation, transmission and distribution resources.
Voltage
The electrical force or potential that causes a current to flow in a circuit. Voltage is measured in volts or kilovolts (kV). 1 kV = 1000 volts.
Watt
The electrical unit of power or rate of doing work. The rate of energy transfer equivalent to one ampere flowing under a pressure of one volt at unity power factor. It is analogous to horsepower or foot-pounds per minute of mechanical power. One horsepower is equivalent to approximately 746 watts.


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