Glossary of Terms
- Base Generation Supply
- Provided by units, usually nuclear, coal or Orimulsion® which have
high capital costs but relatively low fuel and operating costs. It is usually
more economical to operate these units whenever they are available. During the
spring months, high water flows allow hydro facilities to operate as base
generation. Base load units generally operate more than 60% of the time.
- In the electric power industry, this word has two meanings:
- Power; that is, the rate of delivery of energy. For example, a utility
might sell 50 MW of capacity, i.e., of power.
- The maximum quantity of power that some piece of equipment is capable of
carrying. For example, a generating unit might have a rated capacity of 50 MW.
- Co-generation is the concurrent generation of useful heat (usually steam)
and electricity. The useful heat is generally used by industry in the
manufacturing process and for space heating.
- Combustion Turbine
- A combustion turbine is a generator that produces electricity by passing
the exhaust gases of burning fuel directly through turbine blades.
- Control Centre
- The control room from which instructions are issued for switching power
system equipment, stations or lines, and for changing the amount of power
generated in power stations.
- An individual, partnership, organization, corporation, institution, or
business that is receiving or has received electrical energy or electrical
services in New Brunswick from NB Power.
- The rate at which electricity is delivered at a given instant or average
over the designated period of time. Demands of each customer and each customer
class are accumulated to form the system demands at any point in time. It is
crucial for utilities to plan and operate facilities such that demands are met
and service interruptions are avoided. Demand is commonly measured in kilowatts
(kW) or megawatts (MW).
- Demand-Side Management
- Any attempt by the utility to change or influence the demand placed upon
the system by customers.
- The act or process of distributing electric energy from convenient points
on the transmission system to the customers. Also a functional classification
relating to that portion of equipment or system or facilities used for the
purpose of delivering electric energy from convenient points on the transmission
system to the consumers, or to expenses relating to the operation and
maintenance of distribution system.
- Distribution System
- All interests in land, structures, lines, transformers, and other
facilities employed between the transmission system and the Customer.
- Economy Sale
- Energy sold by one power system to another to effect a saving in the cost
of generation when the receiving party has adequate capability to supply the
loads on its own system.
- Embedded Cost Rates
- Distributing a utilities total annual costs among rate classes based on
- Is the amount of electricity supplied over a specified time period. Energy
is commonly measured in kilowatt hours (kWh), megawatt hours (MWh), or gigawatt
- Firm Sale
- Electric power intended to be available at all times during the period of
the agreement for its sale.
- Forced Outage Rate
- The probability that a particular generating unit or other system component
will be unavailable for service because of breakdown.
- Is the process which transforms thermal, mechanical or nuclear energy into
- Incentive Rate
- A reduction in demand charges of large industrial customers with new or
additional loads of 2000 kW or greater. The incentive rate is effective until
September 30, 2001.
- Kilowatt hours delivered to or received by one electric utility system from
another. They may be returned in kind at a later time or may be accumulated as
energy balances until the end of a stated period. Settlement may be by payment
or on a pooling basis.
- Interconnected System
- A system consisting of two or more individual power systems connected
together by transmission lines.
- Electric power or energy consumed by a particular customer or group of
- Is a trademark name for a water emulsion fuel made from bitumen found in
the Orinoco region of Venezuela
- The state of a circuit component when it is not available to perform its
intended function because of some event associated with that component. An
outage may or may not cause an interruption of service to consumers, depending
on the layout of the system.
- Natural Gas Combined-Cycle (NGCC)
- A form of electrical generation whereby hot exhaust gases from the
combustion turbine are passed through a heat recovery steam generator where they
are cooled. The steam drives a separate generator. Usually about two-thirds of
the power comes from the combustion turbine and one-third comes from the steam
- Non-Utility Generation (NUG)
- Non-utility generation in New Brunswick is electrical generation produced
by industrial enterprises or other entrepreneurs, either for sale to NB Power or
for their own use. Producers may realize greater efficiencies by generating
their own power, rather than purchasing it from the NB Power system.
- Participation Contract
- A type of firm contract only supplied when a specified generation source is
- Peaking Generation Supply
- Provided by units, usually combustion turbines, which have the least
expensive capital costs (30% of base load units) but use expensive high quality
fuels. As a result, peaking units are only economical if operated for short
periods of time. Peaking generation is also available from hydro facilities,
however, these facilities are generally dependent on river flows. Peaking units
provide needed reserve in order to maintain an acceptable level of reliability
on the system.
- Power System
- All the interconnected facilities of an electrical utility. A power system
includes the generating stations, transformers, switching stations, transmission
lines, substations, distribution lines, and circuits to the customers' premises.
In short, a system consists of all the facilities required to provide electrical
service to the customers.
- The act or process of generating electric energy. Also a functional
classification relating to that portion of utility equipment used for the
purpose of generating electric energy, or to expenses relating to the operating
or maintenance of production facilities, or the purchase and interchange of
- Rate Universality
- Providing the same rates for all customers within a specific rate class.
- Reserve Generating Capability
- The extra generating capacity required on any power system over and above
the expected peak load. Such a reserve is required mainly for two reasons:
First, in case of unexpected breakdown of generating equipment; second, in case
the actual peak load is higher than forecast.
- Spacer Location and Repositioning (SLAR)
- A process designed for nuclear power stations which will allow spacer
springs in fuel bundles to be located and moved back into their design location.
- An assemblage of equipment for the purpose of switching and/or changing or
regulating the voltage of electricity. Service equipment, line transformer
installations, or minor distribution or transmission equipment are not
classified as substations or terminals.
- Sulphur Dioxide
- A heavy, odourless gas with the chemical formula SO2. It occurs in the flue
gasses emitted from furnaces where fuel containing sulphur is burned.
- The act or process of transporting electric energy in bulk from a source of
supply to other principal parts of the system or to other utility systems. Also
a functional classification relating to that portion of utility facilities used
for the purpose of transmitting electric energy in bulk to other principal parts
of the system or to other utility systems, or to expenses relating to the
operation and maintenance of transmission facilities.
- Verticle Integrated Utility
- A utility with generation, transmission and distribution resources.
- The electrical force or potential that causes a current to flow in a
circuit. Voltage is measured in volts or kilovolts (kV). 1 kV = 1000 volts.
- The electrical unit of power or rate of doing work. The rate of energy
transfer equivalent to one ampere flowing under a pressure of one volt at unity
power factor. It is analogous to horsepower or foot-pounds per minute of
mechanical power. One horsepower is equivalent to approximately 746 watts.